BRK Healthcare Journal

BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC

BRK Global Healthcare Journal is a global health peer-review journal focusing on global health issues of women and other vulnerable groups around the globe. The journal accepts original work to include case studies, empirical studies, and meta-analysis and theoretical papers. Also, the journal article is written in the 6 edition of APA format. The journal articles are published biannually. The published manuscript becomes the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by BRK Global Healthcare Consulting, LLC. Also, the author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership he/she (they) may have in such a manuscript to the Journal. By submitting a manuscript to the Journal, the author(s) agree(s) to these conditions. If you are interested in submitting a journal article, please send the manuscript to the editor at brkhealthcare@gmail.com for publication.

Disclaimer

Articles featured on this website are opinion pieces composed by the authors, and not necessarily those of the editors or BRK Global Healthcare Journal. While every effort is made to ensure that the content of this website is accurate.

BRK Global Healthcare Journal, ISBN:978-1-5323-4858-7,  doi>10.35455/brk123</doi>

Editorial Board

Bernice Robert Kennedy, PhD, APRN, MSN, PMH-CNS, BC

  • Professor; Researcher; Consultant
  • BRK Global Healthcare Consulting, LLC

Chalice C. Rhodes (Former Jenkins), Ph.D., LPC, NCC

  • Assistant Clinical Professor in the Department of Counseling & Family Therapy in the College of Nursing and Health Professions.
  • Drexel University

Lisa T. Williams DNP, MSN/Ed., MSM, APRN, FNP-BC

  • Family Nurse Practitioner- Nursing Educator/ Health Care Consultant
    Owner/CEO- Assessments Unlimited, LLC

Angela Woods-Johnson, DHSc, MSN, RN, CCM

  • TCM Case Manager
  • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Nursing Services (ONS)

Tracee Smith, PhD

  • Adjunct Faculty in Human Services
  • Alcorn State University

Beyonka Wilder, EdD

  • BRK Global Healthcare Consulting, LLC
  • Curriculum Development

Journal Articles
Year 2019
Volume 3

  1. African American Women and Domestic Violence: Addressing their Voice of Silence

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC
Chalice C. Jenkins, PhD, LPC, NCC

Abstract
Historically, during slavery, the international slave trade promoted normalization of violence against African American women. During slavery, African American women endured inhuman conditions because of the majority race views of them as being over-sexualized, physically strong, and immoral. This perception of the African American women as being highly sexual and more sexual than white women results in slave owner justifying their sexual violation and degrading of the African American women. The stereotypical representations of African American women as strong, controlling, dangerous, fearless, and invulnerable may interfere with the African American women receiving the needed services for domestic violence in the community. The Strong Black Women Archetype has been dated back to slavery describing their coping mechanism in dealing with oppression by developing a strong, less traditionally female role. The authors developed a model: The Multidimensional Perspectives of Factors Contributing to Domestic Violence of African American Women in the United States. This model depicts historically, the factors contributing to domestic violence of African American women in the United States. Also, this model addressed the African American women subscribing to the Strong Black Women Archetype to cope with domestic violence. Despite the increase in domestic violence in African American women, they focused more on the issue of racism instead of sexism in America. African American women have experienced the two obstacles of racism and sexism in America. However, African American women and men believe racism is more critical than sexism. Therefore, domestic violence in the African American population may remain silent because of cultural loyalty. However, the voice of silence of African American females is gradually changing with the upcoming generations.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2018, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk12345678</doi>

Key Words: African American, females; domestic violence; intimate partner violence; strong black women archetype; the voice of silence.

Received:  November 15, 2019; Accepted: December 15, 2019; Published: February 13, 2020

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. Human Trafficking “Modern Day Slavery” Promoting the Need for Adequate Screening, Assessment, and Interventions for Physical and Mental Conditions by Healthcare Professionals                     

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC

Abstract
Worldwide human trafficking, frequently referred to as “modern-day slavery,” is considered to be the third-largest criminal industry and one of the fastest-growing, surpassed only by arms and drug dealing.    Human trafficking is a multi-faceted complex global issue that involves essentially all developed countries either as a source, transit or destination sites. It is the act of recruiting, receiving, and apprehending individuals using threat, coercion and or physical force for exploitation.  This analytical review of the literature addressed existing research and literature on the current status of human trafficking. The victims of trafficking may access some healthcare organizations at some point in time during their captivity.  Therefore, health professionals (e.g., advanced practice nurses, nurses) need to be able to screen, assess and identify certain clues and health conditions that are common to this population. Besides, to improve their health outcomes, this visit will be useful for their capture. The Holistic Model Based on Adequate Screening, Assessment and Interventions for Improving the Health Outcomes in Victims of Human Trafficking is a useful model for guiding health professionals in recognizing the relevance of abuse when victims present certain illnesses in diverse healthcare organizations.  Strategies for improving the health outcomes for this group include: (a) adequate screening, assessment, and interventions and (b) more education for health professionals on assessing and recognizing victims of human trafficking. Policy development is needed in changing laws for the protection of victims of human trafficking around the globe.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2019, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk123456789</doi>

Key Words: Women, females; modern day slavery: global; human trafficking; sex trafficking; labor trafficking; health inequalities; health promotion; health disparities; treatment; policy development; health professionals; advanced practice nurses; nurses

Received:  November 15, 2019; Accepted: December 15, 2019; Published: February 13, 2020

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com

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1.African American Women and Depression:  Promoting the Need for Culturally Competent Treatment

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC

Chalice C. Jenkins, PhD, LPC, NCC

Abstract
Depression is gradually increasing in African American women. These women are experiencing role changes and additional life stressors. Depressed African American women may perceive themselves as being devalued by society with fewer support systems to buffer stressful events. Depressive symptoms may develop into clinical depression and a further decrease in the quality of life for the African American woman. The assumption that all women share similar experiences does not allow for differences to emerge regarding the diagnostic process, measuring tools, and successful treatment strategies for various cultures. The authors developed a Multifaceted Model of Depression in African American Women for improving the treatment of African American women with depression and future research needs. Cultural background plays a vital role in how the symptoms of mental illnesses are developed, reported, interpreted, and how women are treated. African Americans who subscribed to the Strong Black Women Archetype (SBWA) are naturally strong, resilient, self-contained, and self-sacrificing. Also, self-reliance prevents them from reaching out for social support. This, in turn, can contribute to depressive symptoms with negative health outcomes. The African American women are more apt to have less access to routine medical care where early diagnosis and interventions can be done, so their mental health problems (e.g., depression, stress, etc.) are often more developed, complicated, and their social supports more depleted when they do access treatment. When African American women do have access to mental health care, they receive poor quality care compared to Whites.

 

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2018, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk123456</doi>

Key Words: African American Women, depression; Strong Black Women Archetype; disparities; health promotion; health disparities; diagnosis; stress; social support; coping; health outcomes.

Received: October 6, 2018; Accepted: October 30, 2018; Published: May 10, 2019

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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2Women and HIV: Gender Inequalities of Women Contributing to HIV Pandemic around the Globe

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC
Chalice C. Jenkins, PhD, LPC, NCC

Abstract
HIV/AIDS is a global health problem affecting women around the globe. The term global health refers to the goal of improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. HIV is a virus that destroys the immune system. AIDS is the last stage of the virus. During this stage, there is little to no immune system left to fight off other infections or cancers. This virus can be acquired by men, women, and children of any age. HIV is the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. This paper is an analytical review of research and literature related to the contributing factors to the rise of HIV in women, treatment and policy development. The model: Global Model: Gender Inequalities of Women Contributing to HIV Pandemic around the Globe was used in conceptualizing gender inequality and power imbalances between men and women contributing to the incidence and prevalence of HIV of women around the globe. Global health problems such as HIV/AIDs are best addressed by collaborating efforts and solutions that involve more than one country. More research is needed collaboratively on the treatment of women around the globe. Collaborative efforts are needed for empowerment, improving treatment and educating women on HIV/AIDS.  Policy development is needed in changing laws to promote gender equality for women around the globe.

 

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2018, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk1234567</doi>

Key Words: Women, females; global; HIV/AIDS; inequalities; health promotion; health disparities; treatment; policy development

Received: October 6, 2018; Accepted: October 30, 2018; Published: May 10, 2019

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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Journal Articles
Year 2017
Volume 1

  1. Global Perspective on Violence of Women and Children: Advocacy on Preventing 21 Century Slavery

Dr. Bernice Robert Kennedy

Abstract
Violence against women and children is a public health problem. Furthermore, violence against women is a human rights issue affecting women and children around the globe. Structure violence is often embedded in the world system which is centered on social inequalities among various populations in countries especially women and children. Lack of equality and empowerment socially, culturally and politically keeps women from overcoming subjugation of violence. Around the globe, women and children lack basic rights of protection from the abuse from perpetrators. Globalization has increased the condition for “new slavery” because it transcends national borders. Therefore, knowledge and awareness of global violence of women and children have increased globally. This paper identified the common global violence acts toward women and children around the globe. The author developed a model used as a guide for conceptualizing the social inequalities of women and children around the globe contributing to their violence: Global Model for Conceptualizing Violence against Women and Children. In this model, access to health and human services is needed for women and children victims of violence around the globe. The current status and future needs of policy development are addressed.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2017, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk1231</doi

Key Words: Women, children, global violence; Inequalities; structure violence; health disparities.

Received: June 6, 2017; Accepted: July 30, 2017; Published: August 16, 2017

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. African American Women Speak: A Phenomenological Study of African American Women’s Beliefs and Perceptions about Compliance to Treatment Regimen in the Healthcare System

Dr. Bernice Robert Kennedy

Abstract
African Americans comprise approximately 13% of the U.S. Population; however African American women are in the upper percentile of healthcare diseases that are preventable such as cardiovascular disorders (e.g., heart disease, blood pressure, and strokes), cancer, and diabetes and HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to provide a forum for African American women living in a southeastern state of the United States to share their experiences with the healthcare system and health practices. The Health Belief Model was a useful health promotion framework for guiding this study. This study sought to answer the following research question: (a) What do African American women report about their beliefs and perceptions about affecting treatment regimen in the healthcare system. The research study consisted of 50 African American women recruited from various communities in one rural county of a southern state in the United States. Results of findings consist of nine themes: The nine themes were as follows: (a) distrust of health care providers; (b) difficulties communicating to health provider; (c) poor quality of patient education instructions; (d) lack of knowledge about treatment regimen; (e) Inadequate time management and inability to manage health treatment regimen; (f) inadequate access to care; (f) unaffordable cost; (g) lack of healthy lifestyle practices; and (i) inadequate coping skills. The community /public health nurse is in a key position to advocate and promote health promotion programs for vulnerable groups in communities. Forming partnerships would be useful in developing programs to improve the overall health needs of African American women. Culturally competent education for health professionals remains a critical issue in the current health system when improving compliance with the treatment regimen for African Americans. Future research needs to examine the contributing psychosocial factors of African Americans and compliance with the treatment regime.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2017, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk1234</doi>

Key Words: African American women; compliance; treatment regimen; health belief; health disparities; access to care; culture competent.

Received: June 6, 2017; Accepted: July 30, 2017; Published: August 16, 2017

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. Intimate Partner Violence: Promoting the Need for Adequate Screening, Assessment and Interventions for Physical and Mental Conditions Resulting from Intimate Partner Violence

Dr. Bernice Robert Kennedy

Abstract
Intimate partner violence is a public health problem having a tremendous impact on women’s health. Also, intimidate partner violence, also known as domestic violence is the primary cause of injury to women in the United States. Physical and psychiatric problems are the result of domestic violence with victims having increased use of health services compared to those not abused. Often, domestic violence is not identified in the health services organizations when victims access health care. This analytical review of the literature addressed existing research and literature on the current status of intimate partner violence. The Holistic Model Based on Adequate Screening, Assessment and Interventions for Improving the Health Outcomes in Victims of Intimate Partner Violence is a useful model for guiding health professionals in recognizing the relevance of violence when women present certain illnesses in diverse health services organizations. Strategies for improving the health outcomes for this group include: (a) adequate screening, assessment,  and interventions; (b) more education for health professionals on assessing victims of violence; (c) domestic violence included in the curriculum of universities and colleges for health professionals; (d) continuing education on domestic violence in the workplace; and (e) assess for signs and symptoms of domestic violence and conduct valid screening and assessment tools on patients in certain health services organizations when women access to care. More policy development is needed for victims of intimate partner violence to improve health outcomes.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2017, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk12345</doi>

Key Words: Women, domestic violence; intimate partner violence; inequalities; physical health conditions; mental health conditions; screening; assessment; intervention.

Received: June 6, 2017; Accepted: July 30, 2017; Published: August 16, 2017

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.