BRK Global Healthcare Journal

BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC

BRK Global Healthcare Journal is a global health peer-review journal focusing on global health issues of women and other vulnerable groups around the globe. The journal accepts original work to include case studies, empirical studies, and meta-analysis and theoretical papers. Also, the journal article is written in the 6 edition of APA format. The journal articles are published biannually. The published manuscript becomes the sole property of the Journal and will be copyrighted by BRK Global Healthcare Consulting, LLC. Also, the author(s) explicitly assign(s) any copyrighted ownership he/she (they) may have in such a manuscript to the Journal. By submitting a manuscript to the Journal, the author(s) agree(s) to these conditions. If you are interested in submitting a journal article, please send the manuscript to the editor at brkhealthcare@gmail.com for publication.

 

The guidelines for authors’ submission are included in the attachment: BRK Journal Article Guidelines.

Disclaimer

Articles featured on this website are opinion pieces composed by the authors, and not necessarily those of the editors or BRK Global Healthcare Journal. While every effort is made to ensure that the content of this website is accurate.

BRK Global Healthcare Journal, ISBN:978-1-5323-4858-7,  doi>10.35455/brk123</doi>

Editorial Board

Bernice Robert Kennedy, PhD, APRN, MSN, PMH-CNS, BC

  • Professor; Researcher; Consultant
  • BRK Global Healthcare Consulting, LLC

Chalice C. Rhodes (Former Jenkins), Ph.D., LPC, NCC

  • Assistant Clinical Professor in the Department of Counseling & Family Therapy in the College of Nursing and Health Professions.
  • Drexel University

Lisa T. Williams DNP, MSN/Ed., MSM, APRN, FNP-BC

  • Family Nurse Practitioner- Nursing Educator/ Health Care Consultant
    Owner/CEO- Assessments Unlimited, LLC

Angela Woods-Johnson, DHSc, MSN, RN, CCM

  • TCM Case Manager
  • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Nursing Services (ONS)

Tracee Smith, PhD

  • Adjunct Faculty in Human Services
  • Alcorn State University

Beyonka Wilder, EdD

  • BRK Global Healthcare Consulting, LLC
  • Curriculum Development

Journal Articles
Year 2020
Volume 4

  1. Workplace Violence against Healthcare Workers in Health Services Organizations

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC, Researcher/Consultant
Chrishonda Kennedy Baker, BS, MBA, Healthcare Administration 

Abstract

The healthcare environment is one of the most complex and dangerous occupational hazards for healthcare workers, especially nurses. The complexity of a culture of patient-related violence and  the nature of their jobs place healthcare workers at risk for violence on the job. Workplace violence is a profoundly serious issue and continues to be a growing problem in the United States. This paper is a brief literature review of workplace violence against  healthcare workers in health services organizations. These sections will be discussed (a) common workplaces where violence occurs; (b)types of workplace violence; (c)workplace violence against healthcare workers in health services  organizations  displayed in a conceptual model; (d) mental health and physiological problems of workplace violence on healthcare workers;  (e) cost of workplace violence in health services organizations; and (e) strategies for prevention. Healthcare administrators are obligated to provide a safe environment for patients and staff. However, numerous guidelines have been developed,  workplace violence continues to  be at an increased rate.   Continuous research studies are needed to improve the safety of healthcare workers in their diverse work settings.  Also, more research is needed in healthcare settings with limited research.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2020, 978-1-5323-4858-7; doi>10.35455/brk12345678910</doi>

Key Words: workplace violence; healthcare workers; patient-related injuries; healthcare environment; health services organizations;  mental health problem; physical health problems; healthcare administrator

Received:  November 15, 2020; Accepted: December 15, 2020; Published: January  25, 2021

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Researcher/ Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA, Email: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. Workplace Bullying and Incivility: Using Organization Development for Improving Healthy Work-life for Employees

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC, Researcher/Consultant

Beyonka  Wider, ED,  Curriculum Development Consultant

Abstract
Globally, a range of terms has been used to describe workplace violence at work such as  bullying and incivility. Workplace bullying is an array of violent behavior in the workplace such as mobbing, assaults, emotional abuse, or incivility.   Incivility is similar  to bullying  but  more subtle and difficult to identify  including behaviors as  rudeness or inconsiderate.   Bullying is different from aggression in that aggression may involve a single act, and bullying involves repeated acts of these ongoing patterns.  The employees are the cornerstone of the organization, and management needs to  work on the quality of work-life for their employees to achieve organizational goals and objectives.  Therefore, workplace  bullying, and incivility need to be addressed to promote  a culture of trust and respect.   When dealings with violence in the workplace, it must take time to improve organizational effectiveness.  Therefore,  Organizational development would be useful in dealing with bullying and incivility in the organization.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2020, 978-1-5323-4858-7; doi>10.35455/brk12345678911</doi>

Key Words: Bullying; incivility; workplace violence;  quality of  work-life; organizational development; OD practitioner; organizational culture.

Received:  November 15, 2020; Accepted: December 15, 2020; Published: January  25, 2021

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Researcher/ Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA, Email: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. The Psychological Development of Horizontal ( Lateral)  Violence  in  Health Services

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC, Researcher/Consultant

Abstract

Workplace violence has a  major impact on productivity, morale, increase absenteeism,  turnover,  patient outcome, and cost. The hierarchy of the  hospital structure  is based on a patriarchal system dominated by male physicians and administrators  with nurses in the lower position.  However, because of nurses being in a  lower position of  hierarchy, their frustrations are acted out laterally (horizontally)  toward other nurses.  This paper is an analysis of the literature in addressing the psychological process of lateral (horizontal) violence among health healthcare employees  in health services organizations. A  model was developed describing this psychological process with the proposed impact of preventive strategies. Horizontal hostility or lateral violence (LV) has been defined as unkind, discourteous, antagonistic interactions between employees in the workplace.  Also, nurses experienced numerous physical and psychologic stress and even death.  In many health services organizations, this  horizontal/ lateral violence behavior is accepted and considered the norm and often overlooked and not reported. Health services organizations need to promote better working relationships among healthcare professionals to have better patient outcomes. In the hospital environment, physicians and nurses need to work more collaboratively. Therefore, nurses  need to be empowered to report and advocate against violence. 

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2020, 978-1-5323-4858-7; doi>10.35455/brk12345678912</doi>

Key Words: Lateral violence; horizontal violence; nurses; physicians;  workplace violence

Received:  November 15, 2020; Accepted: December 15, 2020; Published: January  25, 2021

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Researcher/ Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA, Email: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. Lateral Violence of Nurses in the Hospital Environment: The Need for Caring

Dee Anne Griffin, MS, APRN, Family Nurse Practitioner, BC

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC, Researcher/Consultant

Abstract

Nurses today are plagued with doing more with less and are forced to work in high-stress situations.  These conditions lead to a stressful situation and contribute to lateral violence.  While lateral violence has the potential to be present in any setting, it is more prevalent in healthcare.  The adage of “nurses eat their young” is still in effect today.  With a change in focus from a to-do list with a focus on genuine caring, not only the nurse but the patient as well will benefit.  The purpose of this analytical review of research literature was to evaluate the prevalence of lateral violence experienced by nurses, determine ways to identify and eradicate it and educate the medical community on the incidence and eradication of lateral violence.  Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring was determined to be the most comprehensive approach for guiding this review. For nurses to provide optimal care to patients, nurses must be able to work in a positive team-like atmosphere.   Future strategies for improving lateral  violence in the hospital environment include more educational workshops and nursing residency programs. Scholars suggested educating nursing students early in their  nursing curriculum on lateral/horizontal violence  to reduce the effects of lateral/horizontal violence for  the future.

Key Words: Lateral violence; horizontal violence; nurses; physicians;  workplace violence; Jean Watson

Received:  November 15, 2020; Accepted: December 15, 2020; Published: January  25, 2021

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Researcher/ Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA, Email: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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Journal Articles
Year 2019
Volume 3

  1. African American Women and Domestic Violence: Addressing their Voice of Silence

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC
Chalice C. Jenkins, PhD, LPC, NCC

Abstract
Historically, during slavery, the international slave trade promoted normalization of violence against African American women. During slavery, African American women endured inhuman conditions because of the majority race views of them as being over-sexualized, physically strong, and immoral. This perception of the African American women as being highly sexual and more sexual than white women results in slave owner justifying their sexual violation and degrading of the African American women. The stereotypical representations of African American women as strong, controlling, dangerous, fearless, and invulnerable may interfere with the African American women receiving the needed services for domestic violence in the community. The Strong Black Women Archetype has been dated back to slavery describing their coping mechanism in dealing with oppression by developing a strong, less traditionally female role. The authors developed a model: The Multidimensional Perspectives of Factors Contributing to Domestic Violence of African American Women in the United States. This model depicts historically, the factors contributing to domestic violence of African American women in the United States. Also, this model addressed the African American women subscribing to the Strong Black Women Archetype to cope with domestic violence. Despite the increase in domestic violence in African American women, they focused more on the issue of racism instead of sexism in America. African American women have experienced the two obstacles of racism and sexism in America. However, African American women and men believe racism is more critical than sexism. Therefore, domestic violence in the African American population may remain silent because of cultural loyalty. However, the voice of silence of African American females is gradually changing with the upcoming generations.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2018, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk12345678</doi>

Key Words: African American, females; domestic violence; intimate partner violence; strong black women archetype; the voice of silence.

Received:  November 15, 2019; Accepted: December 15, 2019; Published: February 13, 2020

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. Human Trafficking “Modern Day Slavery” Promoting the Need for Adequate Screening, Assessment, and Interventions for Physical and Mental Conditions by Healthcare Professionals                     

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC

Abstract
Worldwide human trafficking, frequently referred to as “modern-day slavery,” is considered to be the third-largest criminal industry and one of the fastest-growing, surpassed only by arms and drug dealing.    Human trafficking is a multi-faceted complex global issue that involves essentially all developed countries either as a source, transit or destination sites. It is the act of recruiting, receiving, and apprehending individuals using threat, coercion and or physical force for exploitation.  This analytical review of the literature addressed existing research and literature on the current status of human trafficking. The victims of trafficking may access some healthcare organizations at some point in time during their captivity.  Therefore, health professionals (e.g., advanced practice nurses, nurses) need to be able to screen, assess and identify certain clues and health conditions that are common to this population. Besides, to improve their health outcomes, this visit will be useful for their capture. The Holistic Model Based on Adequate Screening, Assessment and Interventions for Improving the Health Outcomes in Victims of Human Trafficking is a useful model for guiding health professionals in recognizing the relevance of abuse when victims present certain illnesses in diverse healthcare organizations.  Strategies for improving the health outcomes for this group include: (a) adequate screening, assessment, and interventions and (b) more education for health professionals on assessing and recognizing victims of human trafficking. Policy development is needed in changing laws for the protection of victims of human trafficking around the globe.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2019, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk123456789</doi>

Key Words: Women, females; modern day slavery: global; human trafficking; sex trafficking; labor trafficking; health inequalities; health promotion; health disparities; treatment; policy development; health professionals; advanced practice nurses; nurses

Received:  November 15, 2019; Accepted: December 15, 2019; Published: February 13, 2020

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com

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Journal Articles
Year 2018
Volume 2

1.African American Women and Depression:  Promoting the Need for Culturally Competent Treatment

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC

Chalice C. Jenkins, PhD, LPC, NCC

Abstract
Depression is gradually increasing in African American women. These women are experiencing role changes and additional life stressors. Depressed African American women may perceive themselves as being devalued by society with fewer support systems to buffer stressful events. Depressive symptoms may develop into clinical depression and a further decrease in the quality of life for the African American woman. The assumption that all women share similar experiences does not allow for differences to emerge regarding the diagnostic process, measuring tools, and successful treatment strategies for various cultures. The authors developed a Multifaceted Model of Depression in African American Women for improving the treatment of African American women with depression and future research needs. Cultural background plays a vital role in how the symptoms of mental illnesses are developed, reported, interpreted, and how women are treated. African Americans who subscribed to the Strong Black Women Archetype (SBWA) are naturally strong, resilient, self-contained, and self-sacrificing. Also, self-reliance prevents them from reaching out for social support. This, in turn, can contribute to depressive symptoms with negative health outcomes. The African American women are more apt to have less access to routine medical care where early diagnosis and interventions can be done, so their mental health problems (e.g., depression, stress, etc.) are often more developed, complicated, and their social supports more depleted when they do access treatment. When African American women do have access to mental health care, they receive poor quality care compared to Whites.

 

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2018, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk123456</doi>

Key Words: African American Women, depression; Strong Black Women Archetype; disparities; health promotion; health disparities; diagnosis; stress; social support; coping; health outcomes.

Received: October 6, 2018; Accepted: October 30, 2018; Published: May 10, 2019

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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2Women and HIV: Gender Inequalities of Women Contributing to HIV Pandemic around the Globe

Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, PMN-CNS, BC
Chalice C. Jenkins, PhD, LPC, NCC

Abstract
HIV/AIDS is a global health problem affecting women around the globe. The term global health refers to the goal of improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. HIV is a virus that destroys the immune system. AIDS is the last stage of the virus. During this stage, there is little to no immune system left to fight off other infections or cancers. This virus can be acquired by men, women, and children of any age. HIV is the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. This paper is an analytical review of research and literature related to the contributing factors to the rise of HIV in women, treatment and policy development. The model: Global Model: Gender Inequalities of Women Contributing to HIV Pandemic around the Globe was used in conceptualizing gender inequality and power imbalances between men and women contributing to the incidence and prevalence of HIV of women around the globe. Global health problems such as HIV/AIDs are best addressed by collaborating efforts and solutions that involve more than one country. More research is needed collaboratively on the treatment of women around the globe. Collaborative efforts are needed for empowerment, improving treatment and educating women on HIV/AIDS.  Policy development is needed in changing laws to promote gender equality for women around the globe.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2018, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk1234567</doi>

Key Words: Women, females; global; HIV/AIDS; inequalities; health promotion; health disparities; treatment; policy development

Received: October 6, 2018; Accepted: October 30, 2018; Published: May 10, 2019

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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Journal Articles
Year 2017
Volume 1

  1. Global Perspective on Violence of Women and Children: Advocacy on Preventing 21 Century Slavery

Dr. Bernice Robert Kennedy

Abstract
Violence against women and children is a public health problem. Furthermore, violence against women is a human rights issue affecting women and children around the globe. Structure violence is often embedded in the world system which is centered on social inequalities among various populations in countries especially women and children. Lack of equality and empowerment socially, culturally and politically keeps women from overcoming subjugation of violence. Around the globe, women and children lack basic rights of protection from the abuse from perpetrators. Globalization has increased the condition for “new slavery” because it transcends national borders. Therefore, knowledge and awareness of global violence of women and children have increased globally. This paper identified the common global violence acts toward women and children around the globe. The author developed a model used as a guide for conceptualizing the social inequalities of women and children around the globe contributing to their violence: Global Model for Conceptualizing Violence against Women and Children. In this model, access to health and human services is needed for women and children victims of violence around the globe. The current status and future needs of policy development are addressed.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2017, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk1231</doi

Key Words: Women, children, global violence; Inequalities; structure violence; health disparities.

Received: June 6, 2017; Accepted: July 30, 2017; Published: August 16, 2017

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. African American Women Speak: A Phenomenological Study of African American Women’s Beliefs and Perceptions about Compliance to Treatment Regimen in the Healthcare System

Dr. Bernice Robert Kennedy

Abstract
African Americans comprise approximately 13% of the U.S. Population; however African American women are in the upper percentile of healthcare diseases that are preventable such as cardiovascular disorders (e.g., heart disease, blood pressure, and strokes), cancer, and diabetes and HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to provide a forum for African American women living in a southeastern state of the United States to share their experiences with the healthcare system and health practices. The Health Belief Model was a useful health promotion framework for guiding this study. This study sought to answer the following research question: (a) What do African American women report about their beliefs and perceptions about affecting treatment regimen in the healthcare system. The research study consisted of 50 African American women recruited from various communities in one rural county of a southern state in the United States. Results of findings consist of nine themes: The nine themes were as follows: (a) distrust of health care providers; (b) difficulties communicating to health provider; (c) poor quality of patient education instructions; (d) lack of knowledge about treatment regimen; (e) Inadequate time management and inability to manage health treatment regimen; (f) inadequate access to care; (f) unaffordable cost; (g) lack of healthy lifestyle practices; and (i) inadequate coping skills. The community /public health nurse is in a key position to advocate and promote health promotion programs for vulnerable groups in communities. Forming partnerships would be useful in developing programs to improve the overall health needs of African American women. Culturally competent education for health professionals remains a critical issue in the current health system when improving compliance with the treatment regimen for African Americans. Future research needs to examine the contributing psychosocial factors of African Americans and compliance with the treatment regime.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2017, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk1234</doi>

Key Words: African American women; compliance; treatment regimen; health belief; health disparities; access to care; culture competent.

Received: June 6, 2017; Accepted: July 30, 2017; Published: August 16, 2017

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.

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  1. Intimate Partner Violence: Promoting the Need for Adequate Screening, Assessment and Interventions for Physical and Mental Conditions Resulting from Intimate Partner Violence

Dr. Bernice Robert Kennedy

Abstract
Intimate partner violence is a public health problem having a tremendous impact on women’s health. Also, intimidate partner violence, also known as domestic violence is the primary cause of injury to women in the United States. Physical and psychiatric problems are the result of domestic violence with victims having increased use of health services compared to those not abused. Often, domestic violence is not identified in the health services organizations when victims access health care. This analytical review of the literature addressed existing research and literature on the current status of intimate partner violence. The Holistic Model Based on Adequate Screening, Assessment and Interventions for Improving the Health Outcomes in Victims of Intimate Partner Violence is a useful model for guiding health professionals in recognizing the relevance of violence when women present certain illnesses in diverse health services organizations. Strategies for improving the health outcomes for this group include: (a) adequate screening, assessment,  and interventions; (b) more education for health professionals on assessing victims of violence; (c) domestic violence included in the curriculum of universities and colleges for health professionals; (d) continuing education on domestic violence in the workplace; and (e) assess for signs and symptoms of domestic violence and conduct valid screening and assessment tools on patients in certain health services organizations when women access to care. More policy development is needed for victims of intimate partner violence to improve health outcomes.

Copyright BRK Global Healthcare Journal, 2017, 978-1-5323-4858-7, <doi>10.35455/brk12345</doi>

Key Words: Women, domestic violence; intimate partner violence; inequalities; physical health conditions; mental health conditions; screening; assessment; intervention.

Received: June 6, 2017; Accepted: July 30, 2017; Published: August 16, 2017

Corresponding Author: Bernice Roberts Kennedy, PhD, APRN, PMN-CNS, BC, Research Consultant, BRK Global Healthcare Consulting Firm, LLC, P.O 90899, Columbia, South Carolina, 29209, USA. E-mail: brkhealthcare@gmail.com.